Now it is important to acknowledge that many neoclassical economic theorists do not accept this Newtonian-Darwinian distinction and the characterization that they are stalwart Newtonian positivists resistant to evolutionary change. After all, economic theory was, indeed, evolutionary long before Darwin ever stepped foot on the Beagle.
Management was, was seen as a form of engineering and therefore subject to the mechanical laws of nature. Good corporations survive market competition because good managers armed with scientifically-based engineering skills maintain or increase efficiency. Bad corporations are inefficient corporations that are led into oblivion by unskilled managers.
Ethicists, however, must also explore not only efficiency, but also the morality of ends and the morality of means. Hence, much of the descriptive and prescriptive analysis of corporations can be summarized in terms of three basic questions:. Whose ends or interests are in fact served by corporate managers? AND, whose ends or interests ought to be served by corporate managers? By what means can managers employ in order to efficiently realize these stated ends or interests AND, what means can managers employ within the bounds of morality? In terms of the management of corporations worldwide, contemporary scholars have identified three alternative roles for managers: Managers as Economic Actors, or agents of shareholders; Managers as Trustees, or agents of stakeholders; and Managers as Quasi-Public Servants, or agents of society.
Moore argued that facts how humans act and moral values how humans ought to act are incommensurable. The moral inquiry in the philosophical tradition has always been steeped in theoretical pluralism. Today, most philosophers agree that there are three competing models of moral theories. There are deontological theories divine command theory and egalitarian and libertarian social contract theory , which construe morality in terms of rights and duties; teleological theories, which construe morality in terms of the pursuit of pleasure and the avoidance of pain egoism and utilitarianism ; and virtue-based theories, which see morality in terms of the pursuit of excellence.
However, utilitarianism and virtue based ethics still attract many adherents.
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In recent years, the communitarian movement has offered a broad-based critique of the foundations of deontological theory. Communitarians basically argue that the two opposing deontological theories that constitute Western Liberalism are not universal moral theories, but political theories embedded in Western democratic ideology.
In short, under certain objective circumstances, rational self-interested agents will chose cooperation over predation. The Nexus-of-Contracts Theory claims to be both descriptive and prescriptive. It is descriptive in so far as it accurately depicts the nature of the corporation.
This, of course, suggests a degree of descriptive relativism. Now in order for the Nexus-of Contracts Theory to be both descriptive and prescriptive or normative it must do more than explain how the various classes of stakeholders stockholders, consumers, managers, employees, consumers etc.
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Many people are suspicious of images because of their immediate beauty and superficiality. They are afraid of being deceived by them, when in fact what they do is to require from them what they cannot be: they seek in the image confirmation verification, evidence, proof etc.
We can criticize them by paraphrasing Nietzsche : poor are the men who fear being deceived, for they do not know that life is made of deceit and falsity, for it is through artifice that we create the possibility of being. The image, the appearance, the simulacrum, is commonly associated to lie, to idolatry. An irony, because even science, which has in St Thomas and his "scopophilia" seeing is believing its Patron Saints is somewhat "scopophobic" appearances can be deceiving , especially when it deals with subtleties such as people and cities.
Indeed, there have been - and there are - so many promises imposed upon images by the sciences that many men resent them. However, it was not images that lied, but men who sought in them something other than image. Science and Image: a long and tortuous relationship.
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Sight is presented in the long construction of sciences as a privileged sense. It is the sense proper to observation, because it allows proximity at a distance: seeing without touching. An intangible luminous link that does not interfere with the seen, despite being understood as a direct immediate vision of what there is: a window onto the world or a pursuer of evidences. With our gaze, we could see how things are by themselves without interfering with our presence. Besides, we have learned to transform our look, allowing the view of phenomena never seen by the naked eye, unveiling invisible worlds that fascinated and still fascinate scientists in general.
Because of that, changing our look creating other possibilities of seeing was always one of the most recurrent agencies between science and the seeing: lunettes, telescopes, microscopes, x-rays, infrared, positrons and after that the wide and infinite range of rays sent off and read that generate visibilities that have little or nothing to do with the sensibility of our retina.
However, more than varying the perspective of the looking, sight in science has always been valued for its ability to attest the existence without touching or cutting the body under study. The hole of the lunette, the circumference of the magnifying glass, the keyhole, the unidirectional rectangular transparency of the false reflectibility of mirrors in the psychological service room: all techno-scientific devices of the looking offering to the voyeur scientist the possibility of seeing without being implicated.
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A spectacular scopophilia that brings to light the knowledge already boxed according to its simplifying classification. However, despite all the contemporary prominence of visuality, our sciences do not see it as visual-image; they only see it through the formalization of the visual in numbers or words formal-image. For science, one has to go beyond mere appearance to allow vision to somehow reach knowledge: "Images are seen as belonging eminently to the sensible field and, for social scientists, this field is a field where only artists have legitimacy" Novaes, , p.
Indeed, in science, image is reduced to two total functions: vestige and intelligible representation of the real. Image has to be subjected to the relation of analogy with the things and to the relation of formalization at the same time. Margaret Mead and Gregory Bateson, for example, captured images in their anthropological expeditions with the purpose of describing and classifying the native types or to describe their typical behavior: to formalize categorical representations.
Similarly, Robert Gardner, one of the pioneers of ethnographic film, exalted the audiovisual inscription as a possibility of an outlook without perspective, a maximal representational objectification: "[ Another example of this long relation between plastic image and research is the study of these images to better put into perspective a historic period or a culture based on the visual imagery produced in them: the study of 13th century paintings as if they were windows onto landscapes of the past, for example. This is the custom of taking an image as representation window , reducing the image to an evidence of something other than itself custom, garment, event etc.
Another option often found in studies of the imagery of past times is the digression about secret symbolisms hidden under mythical and sacred figures. In this case, we read the images based on a grammar that tries to unveil which hidden messages our forebears sent us through paintings, frescoes, stelae etc. However, we are not interested in seeing them here as texts ciphered in symbols, ready to be interpreted to reveal the spirit that animated a long gone time. Rather than seeing them as windows onto other landscapes or symbols of the soul of ancient times, we can take the images as simple imagetic relational actions of a specific context.
Such relations turned into images were and are coordinated with all the other variety of remnants of actions that have reached us from these other times and, because of that, they allow us to think about the relations that constituted them and the relations that they constituted at their specific time and place.
That is to say, the images are a set of relations that acquired body through ink, through light, through computers and, in so doing, play for us the role of a node where we can investigate the network of relations in which they were inserted. Beyond the truth or lie of the referents of designation and meaning , there is the sense that it constitutes by affirming itself in the world, by individualizing itself imagetically in the encounters that took place then. Undoubtedly, the image is immersed in the daily life constituting society; however, it immerses itself by acting and not by producing.
Thus, for example, the way in which children are dressed in a painting is just "the way these children are dressed to be portrayed by this artist in this painting", and may tell more about the pomp of the circumstance of being portrayed at that specific time and place than about the ordinary garments of that period and location: "In other words, as in the case of the portraits of individuals, representations of society tell us something about a relation, a relation between the maker of the representation and the people portrayed" Burke, , p.
Images, just as men and teapots, are relations: Different encounters giving body to bodies. In the same manner, the effect of the "apparent realism" Burke, , p. It is rather a stylistics, which has no necessary relation to a referent with respect to which it keeps a relation of verisimilitude. The realism in the painting, in the audiovisual or in the photograph is not the evidence of a referent, but a way of affirming, a stylistics of expressing itself that ends up generating the effect of persuading of the presence of the referent, albeit many times such referent is known to be inexistent.
Therefore, beyond the conflict between idealization and demonization of the reality of the image, we observe the need to pay attention to the complex plot that modulates a stylistics and individuates a piece of work. In this context, when producing images that think we should not naively seek the representation of the world referent or of the ideas symbol such as they are.
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Instead, we can just traverse the world with an outlook and give body to images and sounds that are produced in this encounter: give free rein to the forces beyond the experience, with experimentation. That is, by giving birth to an image we create also a world that accompanies it: nuances that highlight elements, a perspective that affirms modes of seeing, colors that establish patterns, lines that limit concepts, gestures that set up relations.
As with the world itself, the image is also an action. The Image beyond Representation: the powers of experimental poetics. In this way, we can argue that the image constructs or not analogical relations based on their modulation in a stylistics in the relations that constitute it and that it produces. They are divergent chains of variation that put in perspective stylistically distinct universes. This is the difference between taking a picture, making a video, film or animation as an evidence, elaborating and exploring its mimetic relations, seeing the world represented using the image just as a bizarre crude lens that does not create, but only captures what is seen on a surface; and, on the other hand, taking a picture, making a video, film or animation, in their relations as singular expression, fluid expressive matter to be composed-decomposed, seen in its pictorial-conceptual relational action.
It is, therefore, a question of relational inflection, of imagetic accent: the stylistics is realist by itself and not because of a relation of verisimilitude with a real object. It is in this modulation between the experimental and the documental that we see, therefore, the appearance of a paradox between the intelligible and the sensible.
Between the documental and the artistic, between the scientific and poetic, we see the operation of a paradoxical mist that turns one into the other and returns the other into the one 1. Jean Rouch, for example, deterritorialized the anthropological-camera from its stable basis: from the tripod giving it spatial mobility and from the centrality of the anthropologist's look sharing with his objects the processes of filming and editing.
However, such experimentations did not find echo immediately within the territory of science: "his 'trance-cine' ended up having more influence upon filmmakers such as Truffaut and Godard then upon anthropologists that were shooting ethnographic movies" Novaes, , p. From the moment in which one no longer takes the image just for its relation as documental evidence, that is, from the moment we go beyond the symmetric relation referent-image that we usually build with the images, from this moment on we can also go beyond the conception that images are the stratagem of the Demon or of the capital , and we will be able to use them to enrich our reality, subvert it, recreate it.
And intelligible and sensible image: image as essay. The construction of a poetic imagetics by de re constructing the landscapes with which we relate: that is the imagessay Dubois, Cinema and photography developed alongside our experience of modern and contemporary cities; they therefore developed a major part of their experimentations on the urban territory itself and on its daily flows, helping to create our senses of them and, consequently, some of the best examples of image as representation and of the poetic image deal with the space of the cities: representing or turning the urban delirious.
We can then walk about the city guided by the persecutory flows ordained by the seal of crime, or war or catastrophe, following the camera of the television news or that of the war, action or suspense movies, amongst others. Thus, without clearly delimited objective we allow ourselves to flow, dawdling along the lines of the landscapes, caressing them with movements of the eye and capturing their rhythms with the camera: "Opposite of the reporter - and of the war photographer - is that who wanders, camera in hand, without direction or schedule, through the streets.
Or that one who, like a landscape architect, contemplates the panorama of the world" Peixoto, , p. We can allow ourselves to be carried by the speed of the city without being necessarily taken by haste: to follow the vertigo of a rollercoaster or of a psychedelic trip without the gravity of the urgency of the steps that exist only because of their end - home, bank, hospital, shopping center, car, work. Eventualize Foucault, our relationship with the landscape, operating with the image-producing device a visibilization of small imperceptible perceptions: the atmosphere Gil, , the climate, or the air Barthes, To make visible this intelligible-sensible that makes us interact with the image beyond a relation of descriptive and enumerative representation of the things of the world.
Instead of using urban images just to know the cities, we can use them to learn new ways of seeing our own abode. The images of the cities were never just descriptive: they shift our look towards other possibilities of seeing that were unknown to us. In these audiovisual essays, the main character is the city and its daily lives, from which emanates a poetic atmosphere singular to each of the urban centers.
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There is in these films and in others, of course an anthropological, urbanistic and artistic discourse that blends art and science into hybrids through long sequences where visual poetry is made with the raw materials of daily life: without limiting themselves to simply describe it, the authors give body and light to elements not strictly visual of their object, juxtaposing realities distant but connected through means other than space-time, revealing perspectives of the city unsuspected by its usual passers-by, altering times and measures of the daily walks, making use of various experimentations to obtain haphazard and poetic effects, allowing a new look over the city.
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